In this lesson you will learn how a message in a mRNA is read by tRNA and eventually leads to the production of a polypeptide chain in the ribosome. You will also learn about mutations, the various types of mutations and mutagens.
By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:
- describe the structure and function of tRNA and how an amino acid is linked to a tRNA by aminoacyl-tRNA synthase enzymes
- explain the three stages of translation: initiation, elongation and termination.
- In a chronological way, describe the various components of the translation machinery and their role in protein synthesis (e.g. small and large ribosome subunits, mRNA, the aminoacyl tRNA binding, the peptidyl-tRNA binding and the exit sites a.k.a EPA)
- Identify each of the phases of the elongation site of translation: codon recognition, peptide bond formation and translocation.
- use appropriate terminology related to mutations such as point mutation, base-pair substitution, base-pair insertion/deletion.
- define missense mutation, silent mutation and frameshift mutation.
- explain using diagrams large scale chromosomal mutations such as deletion, inversion, insertion, and translocation.
- define transposition, and transposons, nondisjunction and mutagens.
- explain how “jumping genes” move from place to place
- list the various types of mutagens: base analogs, interrupters and reactice chemicals.
Because of the complexity of translation, you should listen and watch carefully the video lesson below and take detailed notes.
Transcription and Translation Activity
Click on the link below to watch an animation on transcription and translation, then prepare a chronological description of the events that occur from template DNA to protein (polypeptide).
Below is a video on mutations and the effect of mutagens. As previously, watch the lesson and take detailed notes.