In this lesson you will learn about the flow of genetic information, how genes specify proteins via transcription and translation, the genetic code and the molecular components of transcription.
By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:
- describe how information flows from DNA to RNA to Protein
- explain how a messenger RNA molecule is formed and read by ribosomes.
- explain the universality of the Genetic Code and its advantage by being degenerate or redundant.
- use the genetic code to read a message in an mRNA molecule and then translate it into a polypeptide chain by reading the message in the 5′ to 3′ direction in triplets
- describe the phases of transcription: initiation, elongation and termination.
- explain the steps involved in the formation of the transcription initiation complex
- explain the processing of an pre-mRNA molecule including addition of a 5′ cap and poly-A tail to the ends of a pre-mRNA molecule
- explain intron are removed and exons are spliced by spliceosomes and the roles of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins knows as snRNPs.
Let’s begin by looking at the flow of information in a cell and the stages of transcription. Watch the video lesson below and take notes.
RNA Processing Activity.
In order to help you visualize and connect the various modification to a pre-mRNA molecule, watch the animation below and prepare a chronological description (‘script”) of the series of events.